Bisel Logo Snitzer Pennsylvania Eminent Domain

2019 Edition


AUTHORS: FOX ROTHSCHILD LLP EMINENT DOMAIN LAW GROUP
  Herbert Bass, Esquire
  Marc E. Needles, Esquire
  David B. Snyder, Esquire

Published: December 2018 (2019 Edition)
(Previous Editions: 1965, 2012, 2014-18)
Most recent supplement/update: N/A
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011962389
ISBN: 978-0-9839159-4-2

1 VOLUME, SOFT-COVER, PRICE: $199.00


FOREWORD
I wrote Pennsylvania Eminent Domain in 1964 when I was thirty-three, having served six years as Deputy Legal Director of the Redevelopment Authority, during its busiest and most creative years. I dedicated the book then to my wife of but for years, Gail, who with two infant children had resolutely stood by me as I balanced work, research, writing and family. I reaffirm my dedication to her, now 54 years later, and to my children Andrew (Corinne), Paul (Melanie), Fred (Jessica) and Barbara (David), and to my wonderful grandchildren, Abigail, Rebecca, Jessica, Joshua, Daniel, Eli and Madeleine.

By 2010, there had been seventeen supplements, the last being 1041 pages, about twice as long as the original text. In 2012 there was a complete revision of the original text and supplements, under the direction and guidance of Herbert Bass Esq, a distinguished scholar and leading practitioner and his group at Fox Rothschild LLP, Philadelphia.

The Eminent Domain Act and its amendments over the last fifty years since House Resolution No.59 of 1959 has "produced uniformity in practice and procedure, assure(d) just and equitable treatment between all interested parties and, in general, improve(d) the administration of justice in this field of law."

  Edward L. Snitzer
November 18, 2014


PREFACE
In 1964, the year Pennsylvania adopted the Eminent Domain Code, Ed Snitzer wrote Pennsylvania Eminent Domain, the first treatise on the subject. It was a groundbreaking publication. For close to 50 years, Ed's treatise has stood the test of time, with periodic supplements addressing new statutory and case law. Our firm has had the privilege of preparing the last 12 supplements, dating back to 1993.

The Eminent Domain Code was amended and restated in its entirety in 2006. In light of the considerable number of substantive amendments and the renumbering of many sections of the Code, we were asked by the publisher to prepare a new treatise on the subject to make it more contemporary. The new treatise is appropriately titled Snitzer Pennsylvania Eminent Domain, and we are honored to be its authors.

  Herbert Bass, Esquire
Marc E. Needles, Esquire
David B. Snyder, Esquire
Eminent Domain Law Group
Fox Rothschild LLP

CONDENSED
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD
PREFACE
TABLE OF CASES

1.POWER TO CONDEMN
2.PROCEDURE TO CONDEMN
3.PRELIMINARY OBJECTIONS TO DECLARATION OF TAKING
4.JUST COMPENSATION AND OTHER DAMAGES
5.SPECIAL DAMAGES FOR DISPLACEMENT
6.BOARD OF VIEWERS
7.APPEAL OF BOARD OF VIEWERS' DECISION/JUST COMPENSATION TRIAL
8.EVIDENCE
9.INVERSE CONDEMNATION AND OTHER CLAIMS WHERE NO DECLARATION OF TAKING IS FILED
10.APPELLATE COURTS

APPENDIX A—PA SUGGESTED STANDARD CIVIL JURY INSTRUCTIONS

INDEX

DETAILED
TABLE OF CONTENTS

       
Foreword
Preface
Table of Cases
Chapter 1
POWER TO CONDEMN
§ 1.1.Background
  § 1.1.1. Power of Eminent Domain
  § 1.1.2. Power Is an Inherent Attribute of Sovereignty
  § 1.1.3. Limitations on Exercise of Power
§ 1.2.Constitutional Limitations
  § 1.2.1. Constitutional Provisions, Generally
  § 1.2.2. Constitutional "Public Use" Requirement
    § 1.2.2.1. Federal Law on "Public Use"
    § 1.2.2.2. Pennsylvania Law on "Public Use"
  § 1.2.3. Due Process Requirements
§ 1.3.Pennsylvania Eminent Domain Code
  § 1.3.1. Generally
  § 1.3.2. Property Rights Protection Act, Generally
  § 1.3.3. Condemnations of Blighted Properties, Generally
  § 1.3.4. Condemnations of Blighted Properties, Single Properties
  § 1.3.5. Condemnations of Blighted Properties, Multiple Properties
  § 1.3.6. Limitations on Extraterritorial Takings
  § 1.3.7. Special Rules for Agricultural Properties
§ 1.4.Enabling Legislation
  § 1.4.1. Generally
  § 1.4.2. Examples

Chapter 2
PROCEDURE TO CONDEMN
§ 2.1.Generally
§ 2.2.Declaration of Taking
  § 2.2.1. Prior Law
  § 2.2.2. Procedure, Generally
  § 2.2.3. Jurisdiction and Venue
  § 2.2.4. Passage of Title to Condemned Property
  § 2.2.5. Contents of Declaration of Taking
§ 2.3. Security
  § 2.3.1. Generally
  § 2.3.2. When Preliminary Objections are Filed
§ 2.4. Filing of Notice of Condemnation
  § 2.4.1. Filing Requirement
  § 2.4.2. Contents of Notice
§ 2.5. Service of Notice of Filing on Condemnee and Others
  § 2.5.1. Prior Law
  § 2.5.2. Service Requirement
  § 2.5.3. Contents of Notice
  § 2.5.4. Method of Service
  § 2.5.5. Cases
§ 2.6. Possession of Condemned Property
  § 2.6.1. Possession Not Automatically Transferred
  § 2.6.2. Entitlement to Possession by Condemnor
  § 2.6.3. Procedure for Condemnor to Obtain Possession
  § 2.6.4. Tender of Possession by Condemnee
§ 2.7. Estimated Just Compensation
  § 2.7.1. In General
  § 2.7.2. Payment into Court
  § 2.7.3. Distribution by Court
  § 2.7.4. Treatment of Estimated Just Compensation Upon Verdict
§ 2.8. Right to Enter Property Prior to Condemnation
§ 2.9. Revocation of Condemnation Proceedings
  § 2.9.1. Revocation by Condemnor
  § 2.9.2. Notice of Revocation
  § 2.9.3. Consequences of Revocation
  § 2.9.4. Relinquishment by Agreement
§ 2.10. Abandonment of Project
  § 2.10.1. Condemnor's Right to Dispose of Property, Generally
  § 2.10.2. Requirement to Offer Property to Condemnee
  § 2.10.3. 21-Year Restriction on Transfers for Nonpublic Use or Purpose

Chapter 3
PRELIMINARY OBJECTIONS
TO DECLARATION OF TAKING
§ 3.1. Introduction
§ 3.2. Exclusive Remedy
  § 3.2.1. General Rule
  § 3.2.2. Objections Cannot Be Raised at Other Stages of a Condemnation Proceeding
  § 3.2.3. Equitable Relief Not Available
§ 3.3. Standing to File Preliminary Objections
§ 3.4. Filing of Preliminary Objections
  § 3.4.1. Time for Filing, Generally
  § 3.4.2. Extension of Time
  § 3.4.3. Service of Preliminary Objections
§ 3.5. Pleading
  § 3.5.1. Pleading, Generally
  § 3.5.2. Waiver of Objections
§ 3.6. Scope of Objections
  § 3.6.1. Scope of Permitted Objections Is Limited
  § 3.6.2. Power or Right to Condemn
  § 3.6.3. Public Purpose
  § 3.6.4. Manner of Exercise of Power
    § 3.6.4.1. Summary of Judicial Decisions
  § 3.6.5. Blight Issues
  § 3.6.6. Sufficiency of Condemnor's Security
  § 3.6.7. Procedural Defects in Authorization of Condemnation
§ 3.7. Matters Beyond the Scope of Preliminary Objections
§ 3.8. Disposition of Preliminary Objections
  § 3.8.1. Manner of Disposition
  § 3.8.2. Requirement to Take Evidence
  § 3.8.3. Non-Prejudicial Procedural Irregularities
§ 3.9. Costs and Expenses If Preliminary Objections Are Sustained

Chapter 4
JUST COMPENSATION AND OTHER DAMAGES
§ 4.1. Just Compensation
  § 4.1.1. Background and Prior Law
  § 4.1.2. Definition
  § 4.1.3. Entitlement to Just Compensation
  § 4.1.4. Just Compensation in Leasehold Condemnation Cases
    § 4.1.4.1. Just Compensation in Leasehold Condemnation Cases—Standing
    § 4.1.4.2. Just Compensation in Leasehold Condemnation Cases—Valuation
  § 4.1.5. Just Compensation in De Facto Condemnation Cases
§ 4.2. Measure of Just Compensation
  § 4.2.1. Fair Market Value
  § 4.2.2. General Knowledge of the Imminence of Condemnation
  § 4.2.3. Special Rule for Natural Disasters
  § 4.2.4. Special Rule for Mine Subsidence, Underground Fires, Burning Coal Refuse Banks
§ 4.3. Scope of Property Interest to Be Valued
  § 4.3.1. Entire Property Interest
  § 4.3.2. Multiple Parcels, Generally
  § 4.3.3. Multiple Parcels, Contiguous Tracts
  § 4.3.4. Multiple Parcels, Non-contiguous Tracts
  § 4.3.5. Machinery, Equipment and Fixtures
  § 4.3.6. Liquor Licenses
§ 4.4. Assembled Economic Unit Doctrine
  § 4.4.1. Generally
  § 4.4.2. Application to Tenant Condemnees
  § 4.4.3. Application to Less Than the Entire Property
  § 4.4.4. Issue of Availability of Suitable Relocation Site
  § 4.4.5. Issue of Discontinuation of Operations Prior to Condemnation
  § 4.4.6. Issue of Movability of Items
  § 4.4.7. Impact of Claims for Special Damages for Displacement
§ 4.5. Use and Fair Market Value
  § 4.5.1. Use, Generally
  § 4.5.2. Present Use
  § 4.5.3. Highest and Best Use, Generally
  § 4.5.4. Highest and Best Use Different from Present Use
  § 4.5.5. "Reasonably Available" Standard — Physical Adaptability Issues
  § 4.5.6. "Reasonably Available" Standard — Issues of Supply and Demand
  § 4.5.7. "Reasonably Available" Standard — Zoning, Generally
  § 4.5.8. "Reasonably Available" Standard — Anticipated Changes in Zoning
  § 4.5.9. "Reasonably Available" Standard — Nonconforming Uses
  § 4.5.10. Highest and Best Use in De Facto Condemnation Cases
§ 4.6. Fair Market Value of Remainder After Partial Taking
  § 4.6.1. Planned Use and Improvements to Be Considered
  § 4.6.2. Post-Taking Actions by Condemnor Not to Be Considered
  § 4.6.3. Only Damages and Benefits Specially Affecting Remainder to Be Considered
  § 4.6.4. Zoning Issues in Partial Takings
§ 4.7. Delay Compensation
  § 4.7.1. General Rule
  § 4.7.2. Prior Law
  § 4.7.3. Date of Commencement
  § 4.7.4. Payment On Account or Into Court
  § 4.7.5. Possession, General Rule
  § 4.7.6. Relinquishment of Possession
  § 4.7.7. Deprivation of Use
  § 4.7.8. Possession Not Required
  § 4.7.9. Calculation
§ 4.8. Certain Reimbursements to Condemnee
  § 4.8.1. Expenses Related to Transfer of Title
  § 4.8.2. Appraisal, Attorney and Engineering Fees
  § 4.8.3. Increased Financing Costs
  § 4.8.4. Precondemnation Losses from Reduction of Rental Income

Chapter 5
SPECIAL DAMAGES FOR DISPLACEMENT
§ 5.1. History
  § 5.1.1. Pre-Eminent Domain Code Law
  § 5.1.2. Early Eminent Domain Code Law
  § 5.1.3. Early Federal Law
§ 5.2. Current Law
  § 5.2.1. Federal Law
  § 5.2.2. Eminent Domain Code
  § 5.2.3. Applicable Code Provisions
  § 5.2.4. Regulations
§ 5.3. Eligibility
  § 5.3.1. Displaced Persons, Generally
  § 5.3.2. Requirement of Displacement
  § 5.3.3. Application to Tenants
  § 5.3.4. Requirement of Legal Occupancy
  § 5.3.5. Partial Occupancy
  § 5.3.6. Number of Displaced Persons
  § 5.3.7. Other Definitions Related to Eligibility
§ 5.4. Claims for Special Damages — Residential
  § 5.4.1. Claims for Relocated Personal Property — Section 902(a)
  § 5.4.2. Claims for Replacement Housing for Owner-Occupants — Section 903
  § 5.4.3. Claims for Replacement Housing for Tenants and Others — Section 904
  § 5.4.4. Definitions Related to Replacement Housing Payments
  § 5.4.5. Authorization Regarding the Provision of Replacement Housing — Section 905
§ 5.5. Claims for Special Damages — Business and Farm Operations
  § 5.5.1. Claims for Relocated Personal Property — Section 902(a)
  § 5.5.2. Claims for Personal Property Not Relocated — Sections 902(b)(1) and (2)
  § 5.5.3. Claims for Expenses for Searching for Replacement Business or Farm — Section 902(b)(3)
  § 5.5.4. Claims for Reestablishment Expenses — Section 902(b)(4)
  § 5.5.5. Claims for Business Dislocation Damages — Section 902(b)(5)
§ 5.6. Nature of Special Damages Payments — Section 907
  § 5.6.1. Payments Not Income or Resources
  § 5.6.2. Prohibition on Attachment
§ 5.7. Delay Compensation on Special Damages
§ 5.8. Administrative and Procedural Matters
  § 5.8.1. Claims Procedure
  § 5.8.2. Acquiring Agency to Provide Information and Advice
  § 5.8.3. Board of View
  § 5.8.4. Timing of Determination and/or Payment
  § 5.8.5. Special Damages in De Facto Takings
  § 5.8.6. Contingent Attorneys Fees in Special Damages Cases

Chapter 6
BOARD OF VIEWERS
§ 6.1. Petition for Appointment of Board of Viewers
  § 6.1.1. Form of Petition, Generally
  § 6.1.2. Form of Petition Where No Declaration of Taking Filed
  § 6.1.3. Service of Petition
  § 6.1.4. Standing to File Petition
  § 6.1.5. Statutes of Limitations for Filing Petition
§ 6.2. Appointment of Board of Viewers
  § 6.2.1. Composition of the County Board of Viewers
  § 6.2.2. Appointment of Board of Viewers in Specific Cases
§ 6.3. Objections to Appointment of Viewers
  § 6.3.1. Preliminary Objections
  § 6.3.2. Other Pleadings
  § 6.3.3. Disposition of Preliminary Objections
§ 6.4. Jurisdiction of the Board of Viewers
  § 6.4.1. Initial Jurisdiction
  § 6.4.2. Delay Compensation
  § 6.4.3. Other Determinations by Board of Viewers
  § 6.4.4. Determination of De Facto Taking
§ 6.5. Board of Viewers Proceedings
  § 6.5.1. Notice of Views and Hearings
  § 6.5.2. Furnishing of Plans to Viewers
§ 6.6. View
  § 6.6.1. Requirement
  § 6.6.2. Change of Condition Between Date of Condemnation and Time of View
§ 6.7. Conduct of Hearings
  § 6.7.1. Requirement of Public Hearings; Record
  § 6.7.2. Power to Adjourn Hearing
  § 6.7.3. Power to Request Subpoenas
  § 6.7.4. Power to Appoint Trustee or Guardian Ad Litem
§ 6.8. Hearing of Joint Claims
  § 6.8.1. Generally
  § 6.8.2. Intervention by Third Parties
  § 6.8.3. Apportionment of Damages
§ 6.9. Disposition of Cases
  § 6.9.1. All Viewers Required to Act
  § 6.9.2. Contents of Report of Viewers, Generally
  § 6.9.3. Contents of Report of Viewers, Multiple Properties or Claims
  § 6.9.4. Filing of Report of Viewers
§ 6.10. Waiver of Board of Viewers Proceedings
  § 6.10.1. Settlement
  § 6.10.2. Agreement to Proceed Directly to Court

Chapter 7
APPEAL OF BOARD OF VIEWERS' DECISION/JUST
COMPENSATION TRIAL
§ 7.1. Appeal
  § 7.1.1. Right to Appeal
  § 7.1.2. Filing Requirements
§ 7.2. Appeal Trial
  § 7.2.1. De Novo Nature of Appeal
  § 7.2.2. Conduct of Trial, Generally
  § 7.2.3. View of Property
  § 7.2.4. Disposition by Court
  § 7.2.5. Role of Jury
§ 7.3. Settlement

Chapter 8
EVIDENCE
§ 8.1. Generally
§ 8.2. Witnesses
  § 8.2.1. Condemnee Witnesses
    § 8.2.1.1. Pre-Eminent Domain Code Law
    § 8.2.1.2. Current Law
  § 8.2.2. Expert Witnesses, Qualifications
  § 8.2.3. Expert Witnesses, Testimony
  § 8.2.4. Evidence Regarding Condemned Property
  § 8.2.5. Evidence of Comparable Sales
  § 8.2.6. Business Profits
  § 8.2.7. View as Evidence

Chapter 9
INVERSE CONDEMNATION AND OTHER
CLAIMS WHERE NO DECLARATION
OF TAKING IS FILED
§ 9.1. Background
  § 9.1.1. Definition of "Inverse Condemnation"
  § 9.1.2. History
  § 9.1.3. Current Law
§ 9.2. Elements of a De Facto Taking
  § 9.2.1. Generally
  § 9.2.2. Specific Criteria Related to Property Use
  § 9.2.3. Burden of Establishing De Facto Taking
  § 9.2.4. Determinations Made by Courts on a Case-by-Case Basis
§ 9.3. Requisite Power to Condemn
  § 9.3.1. Generally
  § 9.3.2. Existence of Power to Condemn, Generally
  § 9.3.3. Existence of Power to Condemn Property Interest in Question
  § 9.3.4. Actions by Agents
§ 9.4. Analysis of De Facto Cases, Generally
§ 9.5. Anticipation of Future Condemnation
  § 9.5.1. Cases Finding a De Facto Taking or an Averment Sufficient to Find a De Facto Taking
  § 9.5.2. Cases Finding No De Facto Taking or Insufficient Averment to Find a De Facto Taking
  § 9.5.3. Code Provisions Regarding "General Knowledge of the Imminence of Condemnation"
§ 9.6. Activity on the Subject Property
  § 9.6.1. Cases Finding a De Facto Taking or an Averment Sufficient to Find a De Facto Taking
  § 9.6.2. Cases Finding No De Facto Taking or Insufficient Averment to Find a De Facto Taking
§ 9.7. Offsite Activity in Proximity to the Subject Property
  § 9.7.1. Cases Addressing Interference With Access
  § 9.7.2. Cases Addressing Impacts Caused by Offsite Grading Work in Connection With Roadways
  § 9.7.3. Cases Addressing Impacts Caused by Other Offsite Activity in Connection With Roadways
  § 9.7.4. Cases Addressing Impacts Caused by Aircraft Overflights
  § 9.7.5. Cases addressing impacts caused by other offsite activities
§ 9.8. Residential Property Use
  § 9.8.1. Cases Finding a De Facto Taking or an Averment Sufficient to Find a De Facto Taking
  § 9.8.2. Cases Finding No De Facto Taking or Insufficient Averment to Find a De Facto Taking
§ 9.9. Tenant Claims
§ 9.10. Regulatory Activity and Other Exercise of Police Powers
  § 9.10.1. Background
  § 9.10.2. Determinations Made by Courts on a Case-by-Case Basis
  § 9.10.3. United States Supreme Court Cases
  § 9.10.4. Pennsylvania Case Law, Generally
  § 9.10.5. Zoning and Related Land Use Approvals
  § 9.10.6. Mining Regulations
  § 9.10.7. Other Regulatory Activity
  § 9.10.8. Exercise of Other Police Powers
§ 9.11. De Facto Takings and Federal Civil Rights Actions
  § 9.11.1. Generally
  § 9.11.2. Federal Case Law
§ 9.12. Applicable Procedures in De Facto Cases
  § 9.12.1. Commencement of a De Facto Condemnation Case
  § 9.12.2. Timing for Asserting a De Facto Taking
  § 9.12.3. Multiple Condemnees
  § 9.12.4. Claims for Special Damages for Displacement
  § 9.12.5. Challenges to De Facto Takings
  § 9.12.6. Determination as to Whether a De Facto Taking Has Occurred
  § 9.12.7. Proof of Damages in a De Facto Taking Case
  § 9.12.8. Appellate Review in De Facto Taking Cases
  § 9.12.9. Statutes of Limitations Applicable in De Facto Taking Cases
§ 9.13. Delay Compensation in De Facto Cases
  § 9.13.1. Generally
  § 9.13.2. Case Law
§ 9.14. Condemnee's Claim for Reimbursement of Costs
  § 9.14.1. Generally
  § 9.14.2. Applicability
  § 9.14.3. Timing of Claim
  § 9.14.4. Determination of Award
§ 9.15. Other Claims for Damages Under the Eminent Domain Code
  § 9.15.1. Generally
  § 9.15.2. Claims for Consequential Damages Under Section 714
  § 9.15.3. Claims for Damages For Vacation of Roads Under Section 715
  § 9.15.4. Claims for Damages From a Reduction of Rental Income Under Section 712

Chapter 10
APPELLATE COURTS
§ 10.1. Jurisdiction
§ 10.2. Priority Treatment of Certain Appeals
§ 10.3. Scope of Review
  § 10.3.1. Generally
  § 10.3.2. Challenges of Decisions as Against the Weight of the Evidence
§ 10.4. Appealable Orders
APPENDIX A—PA SUGGESTED STANDARD CIVIL JURY INSTRUCTIONS
INDEX

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